Artificial Intelligence (AI)

Introduction: Artificial Intelligence (AI)

Artificial Intelligence is a wide-ranging branch of computer science that moves towards the direction of building smart machines which are able to carry out actions which usually needs the intelligence of humans. Some examples of Artificial Intelligence includes natural language processing, speech recognition, machine vision and expert systems.


If AI is defined as “Building intelligent machines”, one of the main limitations will be that this does not explain what AI is and what is it that makes a machine intelligent. AI is the interdisciplinary science which consists of multiple approaches, but recent advancements in deep learning and machine learning have been creating a paradigm shift in all sectors of the tech industry.


Types of approaches:

  • Thinking like humans: Imitate thoughts based on the concept of how the human mind thinks.
  • Thinking rationally: Imitate thoughts based on the concept of reasoning logically.
  • Acting humanly: Behaving in a way that imitates the behavior of humans.
  • Acting rationally: Behaving in a way that serves a purpose towards a specific objective.


Cognitive skills of AI:

  • Learning processes: This skill of AI programming focuses on getting data and creating algorithms to allow the data to be transformed into actionable information. These rules allows computer devices to be able to complete tasks by giving them specific instructions.
  • Reasoning processes: This part of AI programming concentrates on deciding on the optimal algorithm that should be used to achieve the desired outcome.
  • Self-correction processes: This aspect is designed to constantly improve algorithms and ensure that the best accuracy of results are achieved.

Advantages & Disadvantages


  • Good for jobs that are detail-oriented;
  • Reduce time required for data-heavy tasks;
  • Produces results that are consistent; and
  • Virtual agents powered by AI can ensure that it is always available.



  • Not cost-efficient;
  • Strong technical expertise is required;
  • There are limited qualified workers available to build tools for AI;
  • AI only knows what was shown to it, and not what it has not seen before; and
  • There is a lack of ability to generalize tasks together

Types of AI

  1. Reactive machines:
    • No memory
    • Task specific
  2. Limited memory:
    • Have memory
    • Able to use past experiences to inform future decisions
  3. Theory of mind:
    • A psychology term
    • System have the social intelligence to comprehend emotions
    • Able to deduce human intentions and predict human behaviors
  4. Self-awareness:
    • AI system in this category has a sense of self, giving them consciousness
    • Machine understand their own current state
    • Does not yet exist